Gender Dysphoria

This page covers resources related to psychiatric and surgical outcomes in adults. For resources specific to pediatric care, please see our Pediatrics Page.

Key Texts:

  1. CMDA Ethics Statement: Transgender Identification. 2021. Full text here.
  2. Herman JL, Brown TNT, Haas AP. Suicide Thoughts and Attempts Among Transgender Adults: Findings from the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey. Williams Institute, 2019. Full text here.
  3. Legato M (ed). Principles of Gender-Specific Medicine: Gender in the Genomic Era, 3rd ed. Academic Press, 2017. Non-affiliate link.
  4. Barrett, Ruth. Female Erasure: What You Need to Know About Gender Politics’ War on Women, the Female Sex and Human Rights. Pacific Palisades, CA: Tidal Time Publishing 2016. Non-affiliate link.
  5. Flores AR, Herman JL, Gates GL, Brown TNT. How Many Adults Identify as Transgender in the United States? Williams Institute, 2016. Full text here.
  6. Anderson RT. When Harry Became Sally: Responding to the Transgender Moment. New York: Encounter Books, 2019. Non-affiliate link.
  7. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association, 2013. Non-affiliate link.
  8. Jones RE, Lopez KH. Human Reproductive Biology, 4th ed. Academic Press, 2013. Non-affiliate link.

Key Abstracts:

  1. Singh D, Bradley SJ, Zucker KJ. A Follow-Up Study of Boys With Gender Identity Disorder. Front Psychiatry. 2021 Mar 29;12:632784. Full text here.
  2. Mayer LS, McHugh PR. Sexuality and Gender: Findings from the Biological, Psychological, and Social Sciences. The New Atlantis. 2016 50:4-116. Full text here.
  3. Steensma TD, McGuire JK, Kreukels BP, Beekman AJ, Cohen-Kettenis PT. Factors associated with desistence and persistence of childhood gender dysphoria: a quantitative follow-up study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013 Jun;52(6):582-90. Abstract here.
  4. Dhejne C, Lichtenstein P, Boman M, Johansson AL, Långström N, Landén M. Long-term follow-up of transsexual persons undergoing sex reassignment surgery: cohort study in Sweden. PLoS One. 2011 Feb 22;6(2):e16885. Full text here.
  5. Asscheman H, Giltay EJ, Megens JA, de Ronde WP, van Trotsenburg MA, Gooren LJ. A long-term follow-up study of mortality in transsexuals receiving treatment with cross-sex hormones. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 Apr;164(4):635-42. Full text here.
  6. Murad MH, Elamin MB, Garcia MZ, Mullan RJ, Murad A, Erwin PJ, Montori VM. Hormonal therapy and sex reassignment: a systematic review and meta-analysis of quality of life and psychosocial outcomes. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2010 Feb;72(2):214-31. Abstract here.
  7. Kuhn A, Bodmer C, Stadlmayr W, Kuhn P, Mueller MD, Birkhäuser M. Quality of life 15 years after sex reassignment surgery for transsexualism. Fertil Steril. 2009 Nov;92(5):1685-1689.e3. Full text here.
  8. Bostwick JM, Martin KA. A man’s brain in an ambiguous body: a case of mistaken gender identity. Am J Psychiatry. 2007 Oct;164(10):1499-505. Full text here.
  9. Segal NL. Two monozygotic twin pairs discordant for female-to-male transsexualism. Arch Sex Behav. 2006 Jun;35(3):347-58. Abstract here.
  10. Clements-Nolle K, Marx R, Guzman R, Katz M. HIV prevalence, risk behaviors, health care use, and mental health status of transgender persons: implications for public health intervention. Am J Public Health. 2001 Jun;91(6):915-21. Full text here.
  11. Meyer JK, Reter DJ. Sex reassignment. Follow-up. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1979 Aug;36(9):1010-5. Abstract here.