- “Responses on Uterine Isolation and Related Matters.” Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faithful, 1993. located here.
Sterilization in the United States (Bartz and Greenberg, review, 2008).
Unintended pregnancies are expensive for patients and for society in terms of medical costs, the cost of caring for more children, and the cost to personal and professional goals. Sterilization is the most common contraceptive method utilized by couples in the United States. Given technological advances over the past few decades, male and female surgical sterilization has become a safe, convenient, easy, and highly effective birth control method for the long term. This article reviews current male and female sterilization options.
The risk of pregnancy after tubal sterilization: findings from the U.S. Collaborative Review of Sterilization (Peterson et al, prospective cohort, 1996).
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine the risk of pregnancy after tubal sterilization for common methods of tubal occlusion.
STUDY DESIGN: A multicenter, prospective cohort study was conducted in U.S. medical centers. A total of 10,685 women who underwent tubal sterilization was followed up for 8 to 14 years. The risk of pregnancy was assessed by cumulative life-table probabilities and proportional hazards models.
RESULTS: A total of 143 sterilization failures was identified. Cumulative 10-year probabilities of pregnancy were highest after clip sterilization (36.5/1000 procedures) and lowest after unipolar coagulation (7.5/1000) and postpartum partial salpingectomy (7.5/1000). The cumulative risk of pregnancy was highest among women sterilized at a young age with bipolar coagulation (54.3/1000) and clip application (52.1/1000).
CONCLUSIONS: Although tubal sterilization is highly effective, the risk of sterilization failure is higher than generally reported. The risk persists for years after the procedure and varies by method of tubal occlusion and age.