CIR is not affiliated with any faith tradition, but some resources from faith traditions are included as explanations for readers with relevant beliefs.

Key Texts

  1. American Association of Pro-Life OB/GYNs. Committee Opinion 7: Post-Fertilization Effects of Contraceptives. 2020. Full text here.
  2. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 206: Use of Hormonal Contraception in Women With Coexisting Medical Conditions. Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Feb;133(2):e128-e150. Abstract here.
  3. Practice Bulletin Summary No. 152: Emergency Contraception. Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Sep;126(3):685-686. Abstract here.
  4. Feser E. In Defense of the Perverted Faculty Argument. Neoscholastic Essays. South Bend, IN: St. Augustine’s Press. 2015. 378-415. Full text here.
  5. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 110: noncontraceptive uses of hormonal contraceptives. Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Jan;115(1):206-218. Abstract here.
  6. Christian Medical and Dental Association. Position Statement: Possible Post-conceptional Effects of Hormonal Birth Control. 1998. Full text here.

Key Abstracts

  1. Buskmiller C, Harrison D, Ruppersberger LA, Yeung PP Jr. Systematic Review of Postfertilization Effects and Potential for Embryo Formation and Loss during the Use of Intrauterine Devices. Linacre Q. 2020 Feb;87(1):60-77. Full text here.
  2. Harrison D, Buskmiller C, Chireau M, Ruppersberger LA, Yeung PP Jr. Systematic Review of Ovarian Activity and Potential for Embryo Formation and Loss during the Use of Hormonal Contraception. Linacre Q. 2018 Nov;85(4):453-469. Full text here.
  3. Peck R, Rella W, Tudela J, Aznar J, Mozzanega B. Does levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive have a post-fertilization effect? A review of its mechanism of action. Linacre Q. 2016 Feb;83(1):35-51. Full text here.
  4. Schneider AP 2nd, Kubat C, Zainer CM. Appreciation for analysis of how levonorgestrel works and reservations with the use of meloxicam as emergency contraception. Linacre Q. 2016 Feb;83(1):52-68. Full text here.
  5. Kahlenborn C, Peck R, Severs WB. Mechanism of action of levonorgestrel emergency contraception. Linacre Q. 2015 Feb;82(1):18-33. Full text here.
  6. Raviele KM. Levonorgestrel in cases of rape: How does it work? Linacre Q. 2014 May;81(2):117-29. Full text here.
  7. Laurinec J, Ethical Problems in the Use of Hormonal Contraception: an Investigation Based on Natural Law Theory and Virtue Ethics. Natl Catholic Bioeth Q. 2014 14 (3):491-524. Abstract here.
  8. Mulligan J. The Mirena® Levonorgestral-Releasing Intrauterine System and Its Application to the Treatment of Menorrhagia: A Moral Opinion. Linacre Q. 2008 75(1):60-70. Full text here. (Followed by letter to the editor disagreeing, Raviele K, No Justification for Using IUD to Treat Menorrhagia,
    Linacre Q, 2008 75(3):177-178, full text here.)