Please note that this is an extensive topic and CIR is working to expand this page.

Key Texts

  1. Humanae VitaeVatican: 1963.
  2. Smith, Janet. “Contraception, Why Not?” Transcript here.

Key Abstracts

The Mirena® Levonorgestral-Releasing Intrauterine System and Its Application to the Treatment of Menorrhagia: A Moral Opinion (Mulligan, ethical analysis, 2008)

No abstract available. Excerpt from conclusion: “[I]n this specific instance and under the conditions outlined above for the use of a levonorgestrel intrauterine system to treat idiopathic menorrhagia, the Principle of the Double Effect does seem to apply and the use of the suggested therapy seems morally acceptable.”

No Justification for Using IUD to Treat Menorrhagia (Raviele, letter to the editor, 2008)

No abstract available.

Ethical Problems in the Use of Hormonal Contraception: an Investigation Based on Natural Law Theory and Virtue Ethics (Laurinec, ethical analysis, 2014)

The development of hormonal contraception introduced a new era in medical practice, marked by the suppression of female fertility by interventions in the hormonal system. The interventions are very grave, as sex hormones are of existential importance both to preserve human life and to preserve the human species. This article conducts an ethical evaluation of the use of hormonal contra ception through two ethical theories: natural law theory and virtue ethics. Based on philosophical reflection, the author examines what effects hormonal contraception has on primary goods and whether its use is congruent with the cardinal virtues.