This page contains background information on this topic. For articles that touch on alternative treatment strategies, see Other Therapies for SSA. For pediatric resources, see our Pediatrics Page. CIR is not affiliated with any faith tradition, but some resources from faith traditions are included as explanations for readers with relevant beliefs.
- Christian Medical and Dental Association. Position Statement: Homosexuality. 2021. Full text here.
- Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Issues and Research Gaps and Opportunities. The Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People: Building a Foundation for Better Understanding. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2011. Full text here.
- Laumann, Edward O. The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2002. Non-affiliate link.
- Michael, Robert T. Sex in America: A Definitive Survey. Boston: Little, Brown, 1994. Non-affiliate link.
- Mills MC. How do genes affect same-sex behavior? Science. 2019 Aug 30;365(6456):869-870. Abstract here.
- Mayer LS, McHugh PR. Sexuality and Gender: Findings from the Biological, Psychological, and Social Sciences. The New Atlantis. 2016 50:4-116. Full text here.
- Hottes TS, Bogaert L, Rhodes AE, Brennan DJ, Gesink D. Lifetime Prevalence of Suicide Attempts Among Sexual Minority Adults by Study Sampling Strategies: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Am J Public Health. 2016 May;106(5):e1-12. Full text here.
- Kinney RL 3rd. Homosexuality and scientific evidence: On suspect anecdotes, antiquated data, and broad generalizations. Linacre Q. 2015 Nov;82(4):364-90. Full text here.
- Drescher J. Queer diagnoses revisited: The past and future of homosexuality and gender diagnoses in DSM and ICD. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2015;27(5):386-95. Abstract here.
- Sanders AR, Martin ER, Beecham GW, Guo S, Dawood K, Rieger G, Badner JA, Gershon ES, Krishnappa RS, Kolundzija AB, Duan J, Gejman PV, Bailey JM. Genome-wide scan demonstrates significant linkage for male sexual orientation. Psychol Med. 2015 May;45(7):1379-88. Abstract here.
- Roberts AL, Glymour MM, Koenen KC. Does maltreatment in childhood affect sexual orientation in adulthood? Arch Sex Behav. 2013 Feb;42(2):161-71. Full text here.
- Andersen JP, Blosnich J. Disparities in adverse childhood experiences among sexual minority and heterosexual adults: results from a multi-state probability-based sample. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e54691. Full text here.
- Zietsch BP, Verweij KJ, Heath AC, Madden PA, Martin NG, Nelson EC, Lynskey MT. Do shared etiological factors contribute to the relationship between sexual orientation and depression? Psychol Med. 2012 Mar;42(3):521-32. Full text here.
- Friedman MS, Marshal MP, Guadamuz TE, Wei C, Wong CF, Saewyc E, Stall R. A meta-analysis of disparities in childhood sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, and peer victimization among sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals. Am J Public Health. 2011 Aug;101(8):1481-94. Full text here.
- Rothman EF, Exner D, Baughman AL. The prevalence of sexual assault against people who identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual in the United States: a systematic review. Trauma Violence Abuse. 2011 Apr;12(2):55-66. Full text here.
- Hines M. Prenatal endocrine influences on sexual orientation and on sexually differentiated childhood behavior. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2011 Apr;32(2):170-82. Full text here.
- Roberts AL, Austin SB, Corliss HL, Vandermorris AK, Koenen KC. Pervasive trauma exposure among US sexual orientation minority adults and risk of posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Public Health. 2010 Dec;100(12):2433-41. Full text here.
- Långström N, Rahman Q, Carlström E, Lichtenstein P. Genetic and environmental effects on same-sex sexual behavior: a population study of twins in Sweden. Arch Sex Behav. 2010 Feb;39(1):75-80. Abstract here.
- Wilson HW, Widom CS. Does physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect in childhood increase the likelihood of same-sex sexual relationships and cohabitation? A prospective 30-year follow-up. Arch Sex Behav. 2010 Feb;39(1):63-74. Abstract here.
- King M, Semlyen J, Tai SS, Killaspy H, Osborn D, Popelyuk D, Nazareth I. A systematic review of mental disorder, suicide, and deliberate self harm in lesbian, gay and bisexual people. BMC Psychiatry. 2008 Aug 18;8:70. Full text here.
- Cochran SD, Mays VM. Physical health complaints among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual and homosexually experienced heterosexual individuals: results from the California Quality of Life Survey. Am J Public Health. 2007 Nov;97(11):2048-55. Full text here.