CIR is seeing more pediatric applicants than in years past, as issues of conscience arise in the exam room, especially transgender issues and contraception. If you’d like individualized free coaching about how to get into pediatric residency (or how to get through pediatric residency), reach out to us at

This page covers pediatric aspects of sexual orientation and gender identity. For articles on these issues in adults, see our pages on Same Sex Attraction and Gender Dysphoria.

CIR is not affiliated with any faith tradition, but some resources from faith traditions are included as explanations for readers with relevant beliefs.

Key Texts

  1. Link to all ACPeds Position Statements
  2. Bell v. Tavistock, 2021. Summary of original decision here. Summary of successful appeal here.
  3. Shrier A. Irreversible Damage: The Transgender Craze Seducing Our Daughters. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing, 2020. Non-affiliate link.
  4. Christian Medical and Dental Association (CMDA). Position Statement: Parental Rights. 2018. Full text here.
  5. Diekema D, Mercurio M, Adam M. Clinical Ethics in Pediatrics: A Case-Based Textbook. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011. Non-affiliate link.
  6. Catholic Medical Association. Position on HPV immunization. 2007. Full text here.
  7. CMDA. Position Statement: HPV Immunization. 2007. Full text here.
  8. CMDA. Position Statement on Limits of Parental Authority. 2001. Full text here.

Key Abstracts

  1. Robles M. The Bioethical Dilemma of Gender-Affirming Therapy in Children and Adolescents. Linacre Q. 2021 Aug;88(3):259-271. Abstract here.
  2. Hruz PW. Deficiencies in Scientific Evidence for Medical Management of Gender Dysphoria. Linacre Q. 2020 Feb;87(1):34-42. Full text here.
  3. Radlicz CM, Fernandes AK. Physician Conscience and Patient Autonomy: Are They Competing Interests? Linacre Q. 2019 Feb;86(1):139-141. Full text here.
  4. Bester JC. The Best Interest Standard Is the Best We Have: Why the Harm Principle and Constrained Parental Autonomy Cannot Replace the Best Interest Standard in Pediatric Ethics. J Clin Ethics. 2019 Fall;30(3):223-231. Abstract here.
  5. Littman L. Parent reports of adolescents and young adults perceived to show signs of a rapid onset of gender dysphoria. PLoS One. 2018 Aug 16;13(8):e0202330. Erratum in: PLoS One. 2019 Mar 19;14(3):e0214157. Full text here.
  6. Brouwer M, Kaczor C, Battin MP, et al. Should Pediatric Euthanasia be Legalized? Pediatrics. 2018 Feb;141(2):e20171343. Full text here.
  7. Hruz PW, Mayer LS, McHugh PR. Growing Pains: Problems with Puberty Suppression in Treating Gender Dysphoria. The New Atlantis. 2017. Full text here.
  8. Fitzgerald JE. Long-Acting Contraceptives for Adolescents A Critique of the Policy of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Natl Catholic Bioeth Q. 2016 16(1):63-81. Abstract here.
  9. Reisner SL, Vetters R, Leclerc M, Zaslow S, Wolfrum S, Shumer D, Mimiaga MJ. Mental health of transgender youth in care at an adolescent urban community health center: a matched retrospective cohort study. J Adolesc Health. 2015 Mar;56(3):274-9. Full text here.
  10. Fernandes EK, Fernandes AK. The demands of human dignity: Sexuality in the young person with intellectual disabilities. Linacre Q. 2014 Nov;81(4):343-62. Full text here.
  11. Siegel AM, Sisti DA, Caplan AL. Pediatric euthanasia in Belgium: disturbing developments. JAMA. 2014 May 21;311(19):1963-4. Abstract here.
  12. Savin-Williams RC, Joyner K. The dubious assessment of gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents of add health. Arch Sex Behav. 2014 Apr;43(3):413-22. Abstract here.
  13. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB, Arabin B. The Groningen Protocol: is it necessary? Is it scientific? Is it ethical? J Perinat Med. 2009;37(3):199-205. Abstract here.
  14. AAP. Committee on Bioethics. Policy statement–Physician refusal to provide information or treatment on the basis of claims of conscience. Pediatrics. 2009 Dec;124(6):1689-93. Full text here.
  15. Condic, ML. When Does Human Life Begin? Natl Catholic Bioeth Q. 2009 9(1):129–149. Full text here.
  16. Sulmasy DP. What is Conscience and Why is Respect for it so Important? Theor Med Bioeth. 2008;29(3):135-49. Abstract here.
  17. Zucker KJ. Children with gender identity disorder: Is there a best practice? Neuropsychiatrie de l’Enfance et de l’Adolescence. 2008. 56(6): 363. Full text here.
  18. Drummond KD, Bradley SJ, Peterson-Badali M, Zucker KJ. A follow-up study of girls with gender identity disorder. Dev Psychol. 2008 Jan;44(1):34-45. Full text here.
  19. Udry JR, Chantala K. Risk factors differ according to same-sex and opposite-sex interest. J Biosoc Sci. 2005 Jul;37(4):481-97. Abstract here.
  20. Diamond LM. Was it a phase? Young women’s relinquishment of lesbian/bisexual identities over a 5-year period. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2003 Feb;84(2):352-64. Abstract here.
  21. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Bioethics and Committee on Hospital Care. Palliative care for children. Pediatrics. 2000 Aug;106(2 Pt 1):351-7. Abstract here.